Below are select documents from the sources referenced in “The Princes: A Reconstruction.” A complete list of sources is also available here


...Bibliography of the Algonquian Languages, Volume 13 of Bulletin (Smithsonian Institution. Bureau of American Ethnology). Government printing office.

“In a letter to me Dr. Trumbull says: The Lord's prayer in Savanahice is reprinted in my Notes on Forty Algonkin versions (p.97), not because it is Shawanese, which it certainly is not, but because it has been copied as such from Chamberlayne by Hervas, Bodoni, Vater, and Auer. It does not belong to any one dialect ever spoken by an American tribe. Copies seen: Astor, Britith Museum, Congress, Lenox, Watkinson. At the Murphy sale a copy, no. 537, brought 90 cents.”



Bodmer, Hermann. Johann Jakob Breitinger, 1701-1776: Sein Leben Und Seine Litterarische Bedeutung, Erster Teil. Zurich: H. Bodmer, 1897.

Bossu, M., Johann Reinhold Forster, and Per Löfling. Travels through That Part of North America Formerly Called Louisiana. Vol. 1. London: Printed for T. Davies, 1771.

(p.9) You know, that, in the time of the famous ∫y∫tem of John Law, who was near overturning the whole kingdom, there was a repre∫entation at Paris of an Indian upon the river Mi∫∫i∫ippi, giving a Frenchman an ingot of gold for a knife, and every one had then the madne∫s of bringing his real money, in order to have a ∫hare in the bonds of a pretended Dorado; it is certain that if some Indians of the neighbourhood of New Orleans had been at Paris at that time, they would have ∫aid with good rea∫on, that the French had lo∫t their wits, or rather they would have taken them for jugglers;...

Defoe, Daniel. A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain: Divided into Circuits or Journies. Giving a Particular and Diverting Account of Whatever Is Curious and Worth Observation, ... By a Gentleman: printed and sold by G. Strahan. W. Mears. R. Francklin. S. Chapman. R. Stagg, and J. Graves, 1725.

(p. 8) “Near this Town, and which is the reason of naming it, the present Duke of Chandos has built a most Magnificent Palace or Mansion House, I might say, the most Magnificent in England: It is Erected where formerly stood an old Seat belonging to Sir Lancelot, Lake, whose Son and Successor struggled hard to be Chosen Representative for the County, but lost it, and had a great Interest and Estate hereabouts. This Palace is so Beautiful in its Situation, so Lofty, so Majestick the Appearance of it, that a Pen can but ill describe it, the Pencil not much better; 'tis only fit to be talk'd of upon the very Spot, when the Building is under View, to be consider'd in all its Parts. The Fronts are all of Freestone, the Columns and Pilasters are lofty and Beautiful, the Windows very high, with all possible Ornaments: The Pilasters running flush up to the Cornish and Architrave, their Capitals seem as so many Supporters to the fine Statues which stand on the Top, and crown the whole; in a word, the whole Structure is built with such a Profusion of Expence, and all finish'd with such a Brightness of Fancy, Goodness of Judgment; that I can assure you, we see many Palaces of Sovereign Princes abroad, which do not equal it, which yet pass for very fine too either within or without. And as it is a Noble and well contriv'd Building; so it is as well set out, and no Ornament is wanting to make it the finest House in England. The Plaistering and Guilding is done by the Famous Pargotti an Italian, said to be the finest Artist in those particular Works now in England.”



Fleming, Juliet. "The Renaissance Tattoo." In Written on the Body, the Tattoo in European and American History, edited by Jane Caplan, 61-82. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2000.

'Listing', 'rasing', 'pricking', 'pinking', and 'pouncing' are the interlinked English terms for tattooing before the middle of the eighteenth century: Samuel Purchas says of the Algonquian Indians that 'the women ... with an Yron, pounce and raze their bodies, legs, thighes, and armes, in curious knots and portraytures of fowles, fishes, beasts, and rub a painting into the same, which will never out'. The English term 'pounce' was associated with writing as well as with face-painting: pounce is a powder used to dust cheeks, transfer embroidery designs through a perforated pattern or prepare parchment to receive writing. To pounce may be to bruise, puncture, emboss or engrave; to slash or jag the edges of a cloth for ornament; or to polish or erase. A pounce may be an engraving instrument, a tattoo or a 'pink'. Pinking (the cutting out of holes, figures or letters, to display skin, undergarments or linings of a different colour) is a mode of ornament readily associated with excess; its depravity (which consists in the interesting proposition that is a superfluous taking away) is regularly adduced in late sixteenth-century attacks on sartorial excess. Finally a 'list' or 'race' is a slit or scratch, a cut that marks. But to rase is also to remove by scraping or rasping, to erase. Remarkable in this early modern constellation of terms for tattoo is the fact that they each propose a logic of the mark whereby one can mark by detraction, detract by addition. In this they register one of the formal paradoxes that structures today's aversion to tattooing. In his Historie of Great Britaine (1611), a book whose frontispiece depicts a tattooed ancient Briton, John Speed echoed Camden's account of ancient British tattooing: Solinus likewise speaking of the Britaines saith, their Country is peopled by Barbarians, who by means of artifical incisions of sundry formes, have from their childhood divers shapes of beasts incorporate upon them; and having their markes deeply imprinted within their bodies, looke how their growth for stature, so doe those pictured characters likewise increase...These skarres by Tertullian are tearmed Britannorum stigmata, The Britaines markes...and of this use of painting both the Britaines had their primitive derivation, and the Picts (a branch of British race) a long time after, for that their accustomed manner, were called Picti by the Romanes, that is, the painted people.

Perdue, Theda. Slavery and the Evolution of Cherokee Society, 1540-1866. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1988.

(p.3) "Aboriginal Cherokee Bondage ... Early European observers of the Cherokees, such as de Soto's chroniclers, assumed that these unfree people occupied a subservient social position and performed a distinct and essential economic function in aboriginal Cherokee society. Europeans were well acquainted with the enslavement of both red and black men to satisfy the persistent demand for labor in their own mercantilist economies, and blinded by their own ethnocentrism, they expected to find an identical economy, demand, and p.4 bondage among the native inhabitants of North America. Had these observers managed to overcome their preconceived notions about aboriginal Cherokee society, they would have discovered an egalitarian social system, a sexual division of labor, and a subsitence economy which defied any explanation for bondsmen comprehensible to them. In fact, Cherokee bondsmen bear so little resemblance to European slaves that the term "slave" can perhaps only be used inaccurately. The Cherokees called these unfree people atsi nahsa'i, or "one who is owned," and the role they played in an aboriginal society can only be discovered within the context of the subsistence economy, the social and political organization, and the values and beliefs which were so alien to early Europeans.”